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Jonathan Campbell
Jonathan Campbell

Reinforced Concrete Design To Eurocodes : Desig... |LINK|



The Eurocodes are a set of structural design standards, developed by CEN (European Committee for Standardisation), to cover the design of all types of structures in steel, concrete, timber, masonry and aluminium. In the UK, they are published by BSI under the designations BS EN 1990 to BS EN 1999; each of these ten Eurocodes is published in several Parts and each Part is accompanied by a National Annex that implements the CEN document and adds certain UK-specific provisions.




Reinforced Concrete Design to Eurocodes : Desig...


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The article introduces the parts of EN 1993 (Eurocode 3) that are required when designing a steel framed building and briefly introduces EN 1994 (Eurocode 4), for composite steel and concrete structures, and EN 1992 (Eurocode 2), which covers the design of the concrete elements in composite structures.


Generally, plastic analysis is used as it enables more economic designs. For serviceability limit states, elastic analysis should be used, but where necessary, consideration of concrete cracking should be made.


The section classification in BS EN 1993-1-1[20] is adopted for composite sections. Where a steel element is attached to a reinforced concrete element, the classification of the element can, in some cases, be improved. Requirements for ductility of reinforcement in tension are given for Class 1 and Class 2 cross sections.


Plastic resistance moments of composite sections may be determined either assuming full interaction between the steel and reinforced concrete or assuming partial shear connection , i.e. when the force transferred to the concrete is limited by resistance of the shear connectors.


BS EN 1994-1-1[29] gives the design shear resistance of a headed stud connector as the smaller of the shear resistance of the stud and the crushing strength of the concrete around it. When used with profiled steel sheeting, a reduction factor, based on the geometry of the deck and the height of the stud, is used to reduce the resistance of the shear connectors. Stud connectors have sufficient ductility to develop plastic behaviour, provided that certain limits are observed if there is only partial shear connection.


SkyCiv Engineering offers structural design and analysis software for steel, timber, concrete and wood, available in different country codes including USA, Europe, AU and Canada. The software is designed for engineer professionals to model and analyze both simple and complex structures faster and easier. Here's a list of design standards that are supported in both Standalone (Free) and Structural 3D (integrated):


SkyCiv makes it easy to design. Whether it's hot rolled, cold formed, timber or concrete, SkyCiv can help with all your frame designs. SkyCiv's structural frame design software integrates powerful analysis with clear and accurate designs.


The unit weight of concrete γ is specified in EN1991-1-1 Annex A. For plain unreinforced concrete γ = 24 kN/m3. For concrete with normal percentage of reinforcement or prestressing steel γ = 25 kN/m3.


The characteristic compressive strength fck is the first value in the concrete class designation, e.g. 30 MPa for C30/37 concrete. The value corresponds to the characteristic (5% fractile) cylinder strength according to EN 206-1. The strength classes of EN1992-1-1 are based on the characteristic strength classes determined at 28 days. The variation of characteristic compressive strength fck(t) with time t is specified in EN1992-1-1 3.1.2(5).


The characteristic compressive cube strength fck,cube is the second value in the concrete class designation, e.g. 37 MPa for C30/37 concrete. The value corresponds to the characteristic (5% fractile) cube strength according to EN 206-1.


The elastic deformation properties of reinforced concrete depend on its composition and especially on the aggregates. Approximate values for the modulus of elasticity Ecm (secant value between σc = 0 and 0.4fcm) for concretes with quartzite aggregates, are given in EN1992-1-1 Table 3.1 according to the following formula:


In the Eurocode series of European standards (EN) related to construction, Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures (abbreviated EN 1992 or, informally, EC 2) specifies technical rules for the design of concrete, reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete structures, using the limit state design philosophy. It was approved by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) on 16 April 2004 to enable designers across Europe to practice in any country that adopts the code.


EN 1992-1-1 deals with the rules and concepts required for designing concrete, reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete structures. There are three main stages are involved in the design of elements in these structures:


Ultimate limit states are often more critical for concrete structures. Consequently, when design is undertaken, the ultimate limit state is designed for and then if necessary serviceability is checked for. However, element sizes ascertained in the pre-design stageusually ensure serviceability criteria are met.


EN 1992-1-2 deals with the design of concrete structures for the accidental situation of fire exposure and is intended to be used in conjunction with EN 1992-1-1 and EN 1991-1-2. This part 1-2 only identifies differences from, or supplements to, normal temperature design. Part 1-2 of EN 1992 deals only with passive methods of fire protection. Active methods are not covered.


EN 1992-1-5 gives a general basis for the design of reinforced concrete components provided with unbonded tendons placed within or outside the concrete. In addition, it provides design rules which are mainly applicable to buildings but, does not apply to structures subjected to significant fatigue under variable loads. It does also not apply to structures with tendons temporarily ungrouted during construction.


EN 1992-1-6 provides supplementary rules to the general rules given in ENV 1992-1-1 for the design of components in building and civil engineering works in plain concrete made with normal weight aggregate.


This textbook describes the basic mechanical features of concrete and explains the main resistant mechanisms activated in the reinforced concrete structures and foundations when subjected to centred and eccentric axial force, bending moment, shear, torsion and prestressing. It presents a complete set of limit-state design criteria of the modern theory of RC incorporating principles and rules of the final version of the official Eurocode 2.


The book stands as an ideal learning resource for students of structural design and analysis courses in civil engineering, building construction and architecture, as well as a valuable reference for concrete structural design professionals in practice.


Giandomenico Toniolo was full professor of Structural Analysis and Design at Politecnico di Milano, Italy. Besides his academic tasks and a professional engagement as structural designer, he carried out a long activity in regulations and standards in Italy and Europe, joining the National Commission for Technical Standards for Constructions and also several committees of the European Committee for Standardization CEN such as CEN/TC250/SC2 for Eurocode 2 (concrete structures), CEN/TC250/SC8 for Eurocode 8 (seismic code), CEN/TC229 for precast concrete products. Within this latter committee he chaired for many years the WG1 on precast concrete structural products. He has been the coordinator of important European research projects on seismic design of concrete precast structures. He has also developed an extensive editorial activity by authoring many scientific works and a number of university textbooks.


Marco di Prisco is full professor of Structural Analysis and Design at Politecnico di Milano, Italy. His research focuses on constitutive modelling for plain and fiber reinforced concrete, theoretical and experimental analysis on reinforcement-concrete interaction and mechanical behaviour of R/C and P/C structural elements. As member of SAG5 Technical Committee for New Model Code, he has been in charge of the chapters on FRC.


S-CONCRETE accelerates your project workflow from design setup to engineering report generation. Use it to view immediate results as you design and detail reinforced concrete beams, columns, walls, and continuous beams according to regional design codes in an intuitive work environment. And S-CONCRETE can easily and seamlessly exports all your results in a comprehensive, transparent design report.


Altair S-CONCRETE enhances productivity with a design solution that generates immediate results in a single interface. Comprehensive code checks go well beyond the strength of the concrete section; design for axial, shear, moment loads, torsion, and more. S-CONCRETE generates transparent design results that include everything users need to detail and optimize reinforced concrete, including:


With S-CONCRETE, users can quickly and easily specify section dimensions, material properties, concrete cover, reinforcement bar type, units, and design codes within a single dialog box. With a powerful and easy-to-use interface, S-CONCRETE is ideal for designing:


Alternatively, users can copy and paste loading data from third-party analysis applications to apply factored loads for walls, columns, and beams. They can also use the S-CONCRETE batch processing mode to design thousands of concrete beams, columns, and walls.


Lastly, users can analyze and design reinforced, multi-span continuous beams that have different section dimensions and reinforcement for each span. Run an auto-design to create a passing model, which users can refine further in the intuitive graphical design environment. Additionally, design and detail interior, exterior, simple span, and cantilever beams for short and long-term deflection, flexure, shear, and torsion throughout the entire beam length. And continuous concrete beam design with S-LINE handles vertical loads and torsion. 041b061a72


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